Besides the Palazzo Medici and Palazzo Vecchio, there are numerous locations in Florence that feature in Alessandro’s life. On his entry to Florence in 1531, he visited the church of Santissima Annunziata. In 1533, his fiancée Margaret watched a spectacular religious ritual in the church of San Felice in Piazza and a firework display in the piazza between San Lorenzo and the Palazzo Medici.
Alessandro’s mistress, Taddea Malaspina, lived with her sister Ricciarda in the ex-Palazzo Pazzi on the corner of Via del Proconsolo and Borgo Albizzi, unfortunately it’s not open to the public. Alessandro’s portraits are in the collections of the Uffizi Gallery, but are not always on display: check in advance if you particularly want to see them.
After Alessandro’s death , many of the Medici jewels ended up in his widow Margaret’s hands and passed into the Farnese collections in Naples: those that remained in Florence are in the Silver Museum in the Palazzo Pitti.
Alessandro himself is buried in the same tomb as his father in the New Sacristy at San Lorenzo, beneath Michelangelo’s statues of Dawn and Dusk. San Lorenzo was also the location for his wedding to Margaret. Eagle-eyed readers of Latin may spot the reference to him in an inscription on the wall – it’s not obvious! A multimedia display in the San Lorenzo museum shows the route that his great-uncle Pope Leo X took for his 1515 ceremonial entry into Florence.
The tower of the Palazzo Vecchio, Florence.
In Alessandro de’ Medici’s day, the Palazzo Vecchio was known as the Palazzo della Signoria, or palace of the government/lordship. The name referred to its function as the seat of Florentine government, and it was here that the decisions that would make Alessandro duke of Florence were taken. The removal of the bell that had traditionally been used to call parliaments from the Palazzo tower was seen as symbolic of Alessandro’s tyranny.
Some of the state rooms retain their decoration from the 1530s, although many were altered during the rule of Alessandro’s successor Cosimo I. He followed through on a plan floated under Alessandro and made the Palazzo Vecchio (rather than the Palazzo Medici) his principal residence. An inventory of the palace from the 1550s shows that Cosimo kept a number of hangings that had belonged to his predecessor.
There are several images of Alessandro and his contemporaries in Cosimo’s apartments, including splendid pictures of the two dukes in classicizing dress in the Leo X Room (where you can also spot Ippolito and Catherine de’ Medici). Another depiction of Alessandro is in the Clement VII Room, but this is now the office of the Mayor of Florence and only rarely accessible to visitors.
The courtyard of the Palazzo Medici, featuring the Medici palle (balls) among its decorations.
Of all the Medici sites in Florence, the one most closely associated with Duke Alessandro is the Palazzo Medici, now Palazzo Medici-Riccardi. Currently the seat of the Province of Florence, it was the principal Medici family residence from the middle of the fifteenth century. Alessandro lived here from his return to Florence in 1531 until his death.
A selection of rooms in the Palazzo are open to visitors. It’s located on Via Cavour, between the Duomo and San Marco.
The highlight for visitors to the Palazzo today is the Chapel of the Magi, frescoed by Benozzo Gozzoli. The procession of the Magi includes many portraits of Medici family members and allies. It is also testimony to the presence of Africans in Renaissance Italy: a black archer is shown among the entourage.
The Palazzo is much changed since the sixteenth century, but a surviving inventory from 1531 recorded many of the furnishings and objects present in Alessandro’s court, ranging from arrases featuring hunting scenes to red silk bedcovers, portraits of saints and a chess set in agate and jasper. It also gave details of the accommodation provided for Alessandro’s courtiers, including the rooms of sculptor Baccio Bandinelli, whose statue of Hercules and Cacus was erected outside the Palazzo Vecchio during Alessandro’s rule.
You can read more about the objects and people in Alessandro’s household in The Black Prince of Florence. The 1531 inventory was edited and published in full (in Italian) by Lazzi and Lulla in Archivio storico italiano 150 (1992), pp. 1201-33. The Palazzo Medici-Riccardi website also features an extensive Mediateca with images and documentation about the palace.
The Palazzo Comunale, Bologna. Photo: Vitold Muratov, used under a CC-BY-SA-3.0 licence.
Alessandro de’ Medici made two important trips to Bologna. The first, in 1529-30, was for the coronation of his future father-in-law as the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. The second, in 1532, was for a summit between Charles and Pope Clement VII. Clement was the most senior member of the Medici family.
Both Clement and Charles stayed in Bologna’s Palazzo Comunale. This is Bologna’s city hall, and much of it is closed to tourists, but you can visit an art gallery on the second floor. Alessandro was one of Charles’ attendants when he received the Iron Crown of Lombardy in the Palazzo’s chapel. Charles’ main coronation took place in the city’s vast cathedral, the Basilica of San Petronio. It’s well worth a visit.
During the 1529-30 celebrations, Alessandro lodged in Palazzo Manzoli, which he shared with the entourage of Isabella d’Este, marchioness of Mantua. The palazzo was rebuilt in the eighteenth century, but you can see its location, a short walk from the central piazza up Via Zamboni here. To get an impression of what a Renaissance palazzo in Bologna would have looked like, try Palazzo Ghisilardi, which now houses the city’s collection of medieval art.
For a picture of Alessandro, visit the Pinacoteca Nazionale, a little further up Via Zamboni. There he appears in Vasari’s Cena di San Gregorio Magno, standing behind St Gregory, who has the features of Clement VII.
The curving staircase and clock are later additions to the Poggio villa.
The Medici villa at Poggio a Caiano was one of Alessandro’s favourite retreats. He lived here when he first came to Florence in 1525, and when he returned to rule the city in 1531 he often used it as a base for hunting.
Located in the countryside about thirteen miles from Florence, the villa was one of several Medici properties in the hills surrounding the city. Florence can be fiendishly hot in summer and country houses offered its wealthier residents an attractive retreat, as well as an opportunity to evoke the villa life of the ancient Romans.
Features of the Poggio villa today that would have been there in Alessandro’s time include the blue-and-white ceramic freeze from the facade, Francabigio’s fresco of Cicero returning from exile (an allegory of Cosimo the Elder’s return to Florence in 1434), and Andrea del Sarto’s fresco of Julius Caesar receiving tribute from Egypt (a reference to Lorenzo The Magnificent’s gifts from the Egyptian Sultan). Pontormo’s fresco of Vertumnus and Pomona would also have been visible in the 1530s.
The villa has been considerably changed since the sixteenth century, but remains a charming place to visit. It is one of the group of civic museums in Florence and its official website is here.
Palazzo Madama, Rome. Photo by Paul Hermans, used under a CC-BY-SA-3.0 licence.
In the first of a series of posts on historic sites linked to Alessandro de’ Medici, Catherine Fletcher looks at his likely childhood home, Palazzo Madama.
Palazzo Madama in Rome is now the seat of the Italian Senate. It looks very different from the way it did in Alessandro’s day, but it’s the only location we can link securely with his early life. Designed by Giuliano da Sangallo, it became the principal Medici residence after the family’s expulsion from Florence in 1494. It was home to Cardinal Giovanni de’ Medici (who became Pope Leo X) and his cousin Cardinal Giulio (Pope Clement VII).
Alessandro lived there after his acknowledgement as a member of the Medici family around 1519 (and perhaps earlier: the details of his childhood are sparse). In 1525, aged about thirteen, he moved to the family villa at Poggio a Caiano, outside Florence, only to flee when Florence fell to opponents of the Medici in 1527. He was probably back at the palazzo in Rome from late 1528 to 1530.
Palazzo Madama takes its name from ‘Madama’ Margaret of Austria, Alessandro’s wife, who made it her residence after his death in 1537.
You can normally visit Palazzo Madama on the first Saturday of the month. Booking details (in Italian) are here.
Very excited to announce that I’ll be recording an Essay on Alessandro de’ Medici for BBC Radio 3 live at the Free Thinking Festival in Gateshead on Saturday 8 November. You can book tickets here. I’ll post a broadcast date as soon as I have one. There are also lots more exciting events, so check out the full programme.
You can now download the Essay as a podcast here.
I’ll be giving a paper about my research at the Society for Court Studies seminar in London on Monday 16 March, 6pm, at New York University, 6 Bedford Square, WC1. Entitled ‘Creating a court in 1530s Florence: the material world of Duke Alessandro de’ Medici’, it will explore the politics of Alessandro’s wardrobe and the wider material culture of this new court – from masquerading costumes to ceremonial dress and beyond. For more details see http://www.courtstudies.org/seminars.htm.
I’ve added a timeline of key events in Alessandro’s life to the site. Read it here.
After a bit of a break for work/personal reasons, I’m getting back to this project. Over the coming months I’ll be posting a series of primary sources about Alessandro and his court (in English translation). Are there issues you’d particularly like to see covered? If so please comment!